Precautions to be taken to avoid Electrical Hazards at Site
How to minimize the risk of Electrical Incident:
Earthing: All electrical equipment, appliances, system, must be earthed or grounded to obtain a low resistance path for dissipation of leakage current into the earth. Proper earth provides a low resistance path compared to human body and hence current flow through earthing, saving human being from injury or Fetal. Double earthing must be provided for all 3 phase connections.
Neutral: Neutral provide return path to the current. Do not combine the neutral and earth leads. Always have separate and distinct neutral and earth wires from main board. Cable colour coding Phase – RED, YELLOW & BLUE. Earthing- GREEN & Neutral – BLACK.
Earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) or Residual current circuit breaker (RCCB): ELCB or RCCB are circuit breakers which trip at very small leakage of current from defective appliances. A correctly chosen ELCB or RCCB can detect small amount of earth fault and reduces the risk of electrocution. Use 30mA rated ELCB for home appliances.
Some Simple Safety Tips
- Use safety gloves and shoes, while handling electrical works (IS-4770:1991-rubber gloves).
- Do not handle electrical equipment with wet hands.
- Do not pull electrical cords with wires from sockets.
- Do not insert open cord wire directly in the socket, use industrial three pins plugs.
- Ensure adequate numbers of sockets to avoid multiple connections from single socket.
- Always use three-pin plug (preferably with shutters).
- Confirm that earth point is healthy
- Avoid fire and short circuits; use ISI marked materials.
- Always use double insulated 3 core cables of rated capacity. Ensure cables laid overhead or Underground.
- At construction site use IP 55 standard, electric distribution board/panel.
- Use proper cable joint kit, if joints are not avoidable.
Electric Shock Treatment:
If the person has been injured by an electrical shock always need emergency medical attention -- even if the person seems to be fine afterward, Call for medical treatment.
Step 1: Separate the Person from Current's Source by turn off power
- Unplug an appliance if plug is undamaged or shut off power via circuit breaker, fuse box, or outside switch.
If you can't turn off power:
- Stand on something dry and non-conductive, such as dry newspapers, telephone book, or wooden board.
- Try to separate the person from current using non-conductive object such as wooden or plastic broom handle, chair, or rubber doormat.
If high voltage lines are involved:
- The local power company must shut them off.
- Do not try to separate the person from current if you feel a tingling sensation in your legsand lower body. Hop on one foot to a safe place where you can wait for lines to be disconnected.
- Ifa power line falls on a car, instruct the passengers to stay inside unless explosion or fire threatens.
Step 2: Do CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation), if Necessary
- When you can safely touch the person, do CPR if the person is not breathing or does not have a pulse
Step 3: Check for Other Injuries
- Ifthe person is bleeding, apply pressure and elevate the wound if it's in an arm or leg.
- There may be a fracture if the shock caused the person to fall.
Step 4: Wait for medical assistance to arrive
Electricity Is a Good Servant but Bad Master”